Applied Antitrust Law

Dale Collins
NYU School of Law
Georgetown University Law Center

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Home page
Topical index
Case studies index

22. Tying

 

24. Price discrimination

 

 

23. Resale Price Maintenance

 

Reading and class notes
Significant precedents
PSKS, Inc. v. Leegin Creative Leather Prods., Inc.
Reference materials
Case studies

 
Primary Materials
Supplemental Materials

Reading and Class Notes

Reading and class notes

Units 21-23 reading materials

Unit 23 class notes

 

Significant Precedents

Minimum resale price maintenance

Dr. Miles Medical Co. v. John D. Park & Sons Co., 220 U.S. 373 (1911)

District court

Bill for Injunction, Dr. Miles Medical Co. v. John D. Park & Sons Co., Eq. 2558 (C.C.E.D. Ky. filed Nov. 6, 1907)

Docket sheet

Summons (Nov. 6, 1907)

Demurrer (Nov. 18, 1907)

Decree, Dr. Miles Medical Co. v. John D. Park & Sons Co., Eq. 2558 (C.C.E.D. Ky. Feb. 28, 1908)

Petition for Appeal, Dr. Miles Medical Co. v. John D. Park & Sons Co., Eq. 2558 (C.C.E.D. Ky. filed Feb. 28, 1908)

Order Allowing Appeal, Dr. Miles Medical Co. v. John D. Park & Sons Co., Eq. 2558 (C.C.E.D. Ky. Feb. 28, 1908) (dismissing petition)

Bond on Appeal (Feb. 28, 1908)

Assignment of Errors (Feb. 28, 1908)

Sixth Circuit

Summons

Dr. Miles Medical Co. v. John D. Park & Sons Co., 164 F. 803 (6th Cir. Sept 10, 1908)

Mandate, Dr. Miles Medical Co. v. John D. Park & Sons Co., No. 1797 (6th Cir. June 2, 1908)

Supreme Court

Transcript of Record (Index)

Brief for Respondent (Dec. 7, 1910)

aff'd, Dr. Miles Medical Co. v. John D. Park & Sons Co., 220 U.S. 373 (1911)

Commentary

± Rudolph J.R. Peritz, 'Nervine' and Knavery: The Life and Times of Dr. Miles Medical Company (2007), final version published in Antitrust Stories 61 (Eleanor M. Fox & Daniel A. Crane eds., 2007).

 

United States v. Colgate & Co., 250 U.S. 300 (1919)

District court

Indictment, United States v. Colgate & Co. (E.D. Va. returned Dec. 18, 1917) (print)

Indictment, United States v. Colgate & Co. (D.N.J. returned Mar. 24, 1920) (utlimately a directed verdict was entered for the defendant)

United States v. Colgate & Co., 253 F. 522 (E.D.Va. Oct 29, 1918)

Supreme Court

Transcript of Record (Index)

Brief for the United States (Feb. 15, 1919)

Brief For Colgate & Company, Defendant-in-Error (Feb. 26, 1919)

aff'd, United States v. Colgate & Co., 250 U.S. 300 (1919)

 

United States v. A. Schrader's Son, Inc., 252 U.S. 85 (1920)

District court

Indictment, United States v. A. Schrader's Son, Inc. (N.D. Ohio returned June 19, 1918)

Final Decree, United States v. A. Schrader's Son, Inc., Eq. No. 1116 (E.D.N.Y. July 14, 1923)

 

United States v. Parke, Davis & Co., 362 U.S. 29 (1960) (± Oyez)

District court

Indictment, United States v. Parke, Davis & Co., No. 444-57 (D.D.C. returned May 2, 1957) (Blue Book No. 1339)

Complaint, United States v. Parke, Davis & Co., Civ. No. 1064-57 (D.D.C filed ____) (Blue Book No. 1340)

United States v. Parke, Davis & Co., 164 F.Supp. 827 (D.D.C Jul 16, 1958)

Supreme Court

rev'd, United States v. Parke, Davis & Co., 362 U.S. 29 (1960)

 

Monsanto Co. v. Spray Rite Service Corp., 465 U.S. 752 (1984) (± Oyez)

District court

Amended Complaint, Spray-Rite Service Corp. v. Monsanto Co.,, No. 72 C 12 (N.D. Ill. filed ____).

Transcript of Ruling on Monsanto Company's Motion for Directed Verdict at the Close of Testimony (Feb. 19, 1980)

Excerpts from Jusry Instructions (Feb. 20, 1980)

Jury's Answers to Special Interrogatories (Feb. 21, 1980)

Judgment (Feb. 25, 1980)

Seventh Circuit

Spray-Rite Service Corp. v. Monsanto Co., 684 F.2d 1226 (7th Cir. June 28, 1982) (Nos. 80-1621, 80-2232, 80-2233, 80-2624)

Supreme Court

Jont Appendix (Index)

Brief for Petitioner Monsanto Company (May 13, 1983)

Brief for the United States as Amicus Curiae in Support of Petitioner, Monsanto Co. v. Spray-Rite Service Corp. (May 13, 1983)

Brief fro Respondent Spray-Rite Corporation (July 13, 1983)

Supplemental Brief of Respondent Spray-Rite Service Corporation (Dec. 2, 1983)

aff'd, Monsanto Co. v. Spray Rite Service Corp., 465 U.S. 752 (Mar. 20, 1984) (No. 82-914)

Commentary

Frederick R. Warren–Boulton, Resale Price Maintenance Reexamined: Monsanto v. Spray-Rite (1984), in The Antitrust Revolution 364 (John E. Kwoka, Jr. & Lawrence J. White eds., 3d ed. 1999)

 

Business Elecs. Corp. v. Sharp Elecs. Corp., 485 U.S. 717 (1988) (± Oyez)

District court

Fifth Circuit

Supreme Court

± Business Elecs. Corp. v. Sharp Elecs. Corp., 780 F.2d 1212 (5th Cir. 1986)

Brief of Petitioner Business Electronics Corporation (Aug. 21, 1987)

Brief of Forty-Two States as Amici Curiae in Support of Petitioner (Aug. 21, 1987)

Brief for Respondent Sharp Electronics Corporation (Nov. 6, 1987)

Reply Brief of Petitioner Business Electronics Corporation (Jan. 11, 1988)

aff'd, Business Elecs. Corp. v. Sharp Elecs. Corp., 485 U.S. 717 (1988)

Commentary

 

 

Maximum resale price maintenance

Kiefer-Stewart Co. v. Seagram & Sons, 340 U.S. 211 (1951)

 
 

Albrecht v. Herald Co., 390 U.S. 145 (1968) (± Oyez)

District court

Jury verdict for defendant Herald Co.

Judgment (May 13, 1965) (no opinion)

Eight Circuit

aff'd, Albrecht v. Herald Co., 367 F.2d 517 (8th Cir. Oct 20, 1966) (No. 18161)

Supreme Court

rev'd, Albrecht v. Herald Co., 390 U.S. 145 (1968)

 

State Oil Co. v. Khan, 522 U.S. 3 (1997) (± Oyez) (abrogating Albrecht), ± vacating and remanding 93 F.3d 1358 (7th Cir. 1996)

Gustavo E. Bamberger, Revisiting Maximum Resale Price Maintenance: State Oil v. Khan (1997), in The Antitrust Revolution 456 (John E. Kwoka, Jr. & Lawrence J. White eds., 5th ed. 2009)

PSKS, Inc. v. Leegin Creative Leather Prods., Inc.

Complaint

Original Complaint, PSKS, Inc. v. Leegin Creative Leather Prods., Inc., No. 2-cv-03 (E.D. Tex. filed Apr. 25, 2003)

Docket sheet (downloaded Apr. 9, 2009)

Answer and counterclaim

Defendant Leegin Creative Leather Products, Inc.'s Original Answer and Counterclaims (June 6, 2003)

Reply to Counterclaim (July 3, 2003)

 
Motion to limit expert testimony
 

Motion to Limit the Testimony of Kenneth G. Elzinga (Mar. 5, 2004)

Memorandum Opinion and Order re motion to limit testimony (Mar. 24, 2004)

Jury trial

Proposed Jury Instructions by Leegin Creative Leather Products Inc.; Request Nos. 1-7; requested by defendant and refused by the Court

Proposed Jury Instructions by PSKS Inc; Instruction 9: Withdrawal From Conspiracy; requested by plaintiff and refused by the Court; Instruction 3: Contract; requested by plaintiff and refused by the Court

Jury verdict and judgment

Verdict Form (Apr. 13, 2004) (finding for plaintiff)

Request for Entry of Judgment and Application for Attorney Fees and Costs (Apr. 28, 2004)

Judgment (May 24, 2004)

 
Post-trial motions

Order (Aug. 17, 2004) (denying motions for new trial and judgment as a matter of law)

Motion for New Trial (filed by Leegin Creative Leather Products Inc.) (June 8, 2004)

Response to Motion re for New Trial (filed by PSKS Inc.) (June 23, 2004)

Reply to Response to Motion for New Trial (filed by Leegin Creative Leather Products Inc.) (June 30, 2004)

 

Renewed Motion for Judgment as a Matter of Law (filed by Leegin Creative Leather Products Inc.) (June 8, 2004)

Response to Renewed Motion for Judgment as a Matter of Law (filed by PSKS Inc.) (June 23, 2004)

Reply to Response to Renewed Motion for Judgment as a Matter of Law (filed by Leegin Creative Leather Products Inc.) (June 30, 2004)

Notice of appeal

Notice of Appeal (Sept. 15, 2004) (as to Order on Motion for New Trial, Order on Motion for Judgment as a Matter of Law)

 
Appeal

Opinion, PSKS, Inc. v. Leegin Creative Leather Products, Inc., No. 04-41243 (5th Cir. Mar. 20, 2006) (per curiam) (affirming judgment for plaintiff) (reported as ., 171 Fed. App'x 464).

 
Supreme Court

Slip Opinion, Leegin Creative Leather Prods, Inc. v. PSKS, Inc., No. 06-480 (U.S. June 28, 2007) (reversing judgment for plaintiff) (reported as 551 U.S. 877)

Docket sheet

± Oral argument

Selected merits briefs:

Brief For Petitioner

Brief for the United States as Amicus Curiae Supporting Petitioner

Brief of Amici Curiae Economists in Support of Petitioner

Brief of Respondent

Brief of the American Antitrust Institute as Amicus Curiae in Support of Respondent

Brief of the States of New York et al. as Amici Curiae Supporting Respondent

An Open Letter to the Supreme Court of the United States from Commissioner Pamela Jones Harbour (Sept. 26, 2007)

Brief for William S. Comanor and Frederic M. Scherer as Amici Curiae Supporting Neither Party

Reply Brief for Petitioner

rev'd, Leegin Creative Leather Prods, Inc. v. PSKS, Inc., No. 06-480 (U.S. June 28, 2007)

On Remand to the Fifth Circuit

Opinion, Leegin Creative Leather Prods, Inc. v. PSKS, Inc., No. 04-41243 (Aug. 30, 2007) (per curiam) (on remand from the Supreme Court)

 
On Remand to the District Court

Second Amended Complaint, Leegin Creative Leather Prods, Inc. v. PSKS, Inc., No. 2:03-CV-107-TJW (E.D. Tex. filed Dec. 29, 2008)

Motion to Dismiss (Jan. 20, 2009) (proposed order)

Plaintiff’s Response to Defendant’s Motion to Dismiss (Feb. 9, 2009)

Reply in Support of Motion to Dismiss (Feb. 19, 2009) (Exhibit A)

Memorandum Opinion and Order (E.D. Tex. Apr. 6, 2009) (granting motion to dismiss) (reported at 2009 WL 938561)

Notice of Appeal

Docket sheet

Fifth Circuit

Opinion, PSKS, Inc. v. Leegin Creative Leather Prods., Inc., No. 09-40506 (5th Cir. Aug. 17, 2010) (affirming dismissal) (reported at 615 F.3d 412)

 
Supreme Court

Petition for a Writ of Certiorari, PSKS, Inc. v. Leegin Creative Leather Prods., Inc., No.10-653 (Nov. 15, 2010)

Petition DENIED (Feb. 22, 2011)

Docket sheet (downloaded July 6, 2014)

Brief of respondent Leegin Creative Leather Products, Inc. in opposition filed (Jan. 18, 2011)

Reply of petitioner PSKS, Inc.d/b/a Kay's Kloset filed (Jan. 25, 2011)

Commentary
 

Kenneth G. Elzinga & David E. Mills, Resale Price Maintenance Wins a Reprieve: Leegin v. PSKS (2007), in The Antitrust Revolution 435 (John E. Kwoka, Jr. & Lawrence J. White eds., 6th ed. 2014).

Reference Materials

Legislation

Discount Pricing Consumer Protection Act, S. 75, 112th Cong. Introduced in the Senate on January 25, 2011. Follows several bills that were introduced in prior congresses, none of which never reached the floor for a vote. S.75 was reported from the Senate Committee on the Judiciary on Nov. 3, 2011. For more on the bill and to track the bill's status, go to GovTrack.us.

Post-Leegin rule of reason approaches

Joshua D. Wright, Comm'r, Fed. Trade Comm'n, The Economics of Resale Price Maintenance& Implications for Competition Law and Policy, Prepred Remarks Before the British Institute of International and Comparative Law, London, United Kingdom (April 9, 2014).

± Herbert J. Hovenkamp, Leegin, the Rule of Reason, and Vertical Agreement (Sept. 7, 2010).

± Christine A. Varney, Ass't Att'y Gen., U.S. Dep't of Justice Antitrust Div., A Post-Leegin Approach to Resale Price Maintenance Using a Structured Rule of Reason, Antitrust, Fall 2009, at 22

± Howard P. Marvel, Resale Price Maintenance and the Rule of Reason, Antitrust Source, June 2008

State enforcement

Look at this first: ± Michael A. Lindsay, Overview of State RPM, Antitrust Source, Oct. 2014.

± Michael Lindsay, Repatching the Quilt: An Update on State RPM Law, Antitrust Source, Feb. 2014

± Michael A. Lindsay, From the Prairie to the Ocean: More Developments in State RPM Law, Antitrust Source, Aug. 2012

± Michael Lindsay, An Update on State RPM Laws Since Leegin, Antitrust Source, Apr. 2011.

—California

Complaint, California v. Bioelements, Inc., No. 10011659 (Calif. Sup. Ct. filed Dec. 30, 2010) (alleging per se illegal minimum resale price maintenance under California state law)

Final judgment (Jan. 11, 2011) (settlement)
Press release (Jan. 14, 2011)

Complaint, California v. DermaQuest, Inc., No. RG10497526 (Calif. Sup. Ct. filed Feb. 2, 2010) (alleging per se illegal minimum resale price maintenance under California state law)

Consent judgment (Feb. 23, 2010)

Alan Darush MD APC v. Revision LP, No. CV 12–10296 GAF (AGRx),2013 WL 1749539 ( C.D. Cal. Apr. 10, 2013)

—Maryland

Complaint, Maryland v. Johnson & Johnson Vision Care, Inc., No. 03C16002271 (Cir. Ct. Baltimore Cty. filed Feb. 29, 2016).

Docket sheet (downloaded Mar. 8, 2016) (± Court web page)

—New York

Verified Petition, New York v. Tempur-Pedic Int'l Inc., No. No. 0400837 (N.Y. Sup. Ct., N.Y.C. filed Mar. 29, 2010)

Trial court

Affirmation of Linda Gargiulo
Memorandum of Law

Decision, Order, and Judgment (Jan. 14, 2011) (granting defendant's motion to dismiss) (reported at 2011 WL 198019)

Appeal

Brief for Appellant

—Kansas

O’Brien v. Leegin Creative Leather Prods. Inc., No. 101,000 (Kan. May 5, 2012) (holding that RPM is per se illegal under Kansas antitrust law).

—State RPM commentary

± Michael A. Lindsay, A Tale of Two Coasts: Recent RPM Enforcement in NewYork and California, Antitrust Source, Apr. 2011.

± Alan M. Barr, Ass't Att'y Gen., Dep. Chief, Antitrust Div., Office of the Attorney General of Maryland, State Challenges to Vertical Price Fixing in the Post-Leegin World, FTC Hearings on Resale Price Maintenance (May 21, 2009)

Maximum resale maintenance

 

Colgate doctrrine

Edward P. Krugman, Soap, Cream of Wheat and Bakeries: The Intellectual Origins of the Colgate Doctrine, 65 St. John's L. Rev. 827 (1991)

Retailer-induced RPM

± Babyage.com, Inc. v. Toys ""R'' Us, Inc., 558 F. Supp. 2d 575 (E.D. Pa. 2008)

RPM and horizontal cartels

± Patrick Rey & Thibaud Verge, Resale Price Maintenance and Horizontal Cartel (CMPO Working Paper Series No. 02/047, July 2004)

Agency reports and studies

FTC Workshop on Resale Price Maintenance (Feb. 17 & 19, May 20-21, 2009)

John Asker, Empirical Challenges and Opportunities in Studying Retail Price Maintenance, Presentation Before the FTC Workshop on Resale Price Maintenance (May 20, 2009)

Patrick Rey, RPM: Theories of Harm, Presentation Before the FTC Workshop on Resale Price Maintenance (Feb. 19, 2009)

Ralph A. Winter, Resale Price Maintenance  with and without Free-Riding, Presentation Before the FTC Workshop on Resale Price Maintenance (Feb. 19, 2009)

± Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, Directorate for Financial and Enterprise Affairs Competition Committee, Roundtable On Resale Price Maintenance (DAF/COMP(2008)37, Sept. 10, 2009).

± United States, Roundtable on Resale Price Maintenance, Report to the OECD Directorate for Financial and Enterprise Affairs Competition Committee, DAF/COMP/WD(2008)63 (Oct. 6, 2009).

Noncollusive "most favored nations" (MFN) clauses

± Lear, Can ‘Fair’ Prices Be Unfair? A Review of Price Relationship Agreements, Report Preparaed for the Office of Fair Trading (Sept. 2012).

Fiona Scott-Morton, Dep. Ass't Att'y Gen., Antitrust Div., U.S. Dep't of Justice, Contracts that Reference Rivals, Paper Presented at the Georgetown University Law Center (Apr. 5, 2012).

Some additional materials may be found on the web site on the Antirust Division and Federal Trade Commission's Workship on Most-Favored-Nation Clauses and Antitrust Enforcement and Policy, which was held in Washington on September 10, 2012. Two presentations introduced the workshop:

± Jonathan B. Baker, Competitive Harm from MFNs: Economic Theories (Sept. 10, 2012).

± Judith A. Chevalier, Efficiencies from MFNs: Economic Theories (Sept. 10, 2012).

Commentary

± Joshua D. Wright, Comm'r, Fed. Trade Comm'n, The Economics of Resale Price Maintenance& Implications for Competition Law and Policy, Remarks Before the British Institute of International and Comparative Law, London, United Kingdom (Apr. 9, 2014)

± Gregory T. Gundlach, Kenneth C. Manning & Joseph P. Cannon, Resale Price Maintenance: A Review and Call for Research (American Antitrust Institute Working Paper No. 14-03, Apr. 17, 2014).

± Theodores Voorhees, Jr., Reasoning Through the Rule of Reason for RPM, Antitrust, Vol. 28, No. 1, Fall 2013, at 58.

± Tarcisio B. da Graça & Robert T. Masson, Flawed Economic Models have Misled RPM Policy in the US, Canada and the EU (July 8, 2013)

± Alexander MacKay & David Aron Smith, The Empirical Effects of Minimum Resale Price Maintenance on Prices and Output (Apr. 29, 2013).

± John Asker, O'Brien v. Leegin: Perspectives on State-Law Resale Price Maintenance Actions (Feb. 6, 2013).

± John Asker & Heski Bar-Isaac, Exclusionary Minimum Resale Price Maintenance (Nov. 17, 2010)

± Slides presented to the New York City Bar (Apr. 4, 2011) (two decks—with and without technical details)

± Herbert J. Hovenkamp, Post-Sale Restraints and Competitive Harm (U Iowa Legal Studies Research Paper No. 10-08, Feb. 11, 2010).

± Elizabeth M. Bailey & Gregory K. Leonard., Minimum Resale Price Maintenance: Some Empirical Evidence from Maryland (Jan. 7, 2010).

± Gregory T. Gundlach, Overview and Contents of the Special Issue: Antitrust Analysis of Resale Price Maintenance after Leegin, 55 Antitrust Bull. 1 (2010).

± Elizabeth M. Bailey & Dr. Gregory K. Leonard, Minimum Resale Price Maintenance: Some Empirical Evidence from Maryland (NERA Jan. 14, 2010)

± Thom Lambert, A Decision-Theoretic Rule of Reason for Minimum Resale Price Maintenance, 55 Antitrust Bull. 167 (2010)

± Thomas A. Lambert, Dr. Miles is Dead. Now What?: Structuring a Rule of Reason for Evaluating Minimum Resale Price Maintenance, 50 Wm. & Mary L. Rev. 1937 (2009)

± Thomas C. Arthur, The Core of Antitrust and the Slow Death of Dr. Miles, 62 SMU L. Rev. 437 (2009)

± Benjamin Klein, Competitive Resale Price Maintenance in the Absence of Free-Riding (Apr. 3, 2009), final version at 76 Antitrust L.J. 431 (2009)

± Thom Lambert, Comment on Truth on the Market (Feb. 23, 2009)

Kenneth G. Elzinga & David E. Mills, The Economics of Resale Price Maintenance, in 3 Issues In Competition Law and Policy 1841 (ABA Section of Antitrust Law 2008)

Bruno Jullien & Patrick Rey, Resale Price Maintenance and Collusion, 38 RAND J. Econ. 983 (2007).

± David Martimort & Salvatore Piccolo, Resale Price Maintenance under Asymmetric Information (April 21, 2006).

Norbert Schulz, Does the Service Argument Justify Resale Price Maintenance? (28. Aug. 2006).

± Frank Mathewson & Ralph Winter, The Law and Economics of Resale Price Maintenance, 13 Rev. Indus. Org. 57 (1998).

Raymond Deneckere, Howard P. Marvel & James Peck, Demand Uncertainty and Price Maintenance: Markdowns as Destructive Competition (____), final version at 87 Am. Econ. Rev. 619 (1997).

Pauline M. Ippolito & Thomas R. Overstreet, Jr. , Resale Price Maintenance: An Economic Assessment of the Federal Trade Commission's Case Against Corning Glass Works (Jan. 1994), final version at 39 J.L. & Econ. 285 (1996).

Raymond Deneckere, Howard P. Marvel & James Peck, Demand Uncertainty, Inventories, and Resale Price Maintenance, 111 Q.J. Econ. 885 (1996).

Howard Marvel, The Resale Price Maintenance Controversy: Beyond the Conventional Wisdom, 63 Antitrust L.J. 59 (1994).

± Pauline M. Ippolito, Resale Price Maintenance: Empirical Evidence from Litigation, 34 J.L. & Econ. 263 (1991).

± Thomas R. Overstreet, Jr., Resale Price Maintenance: Economic Theories and Empirical Evidence (FTC 1983).

Lester Telser, Why Should Manufacturers Want Fair Trade?, 3 J.L. & Econ. 86 (1960).

± Ward S. Bowman, Jr., The Prerequisites and Effects of Resale Price Maintenance, 22 U. Chi. L. Rev. 825 (1955).

Carl H. Fulda, Resale Price Maintenance, 21 U. Chi. L. Rev. 175 (1954).

Basil Yamey, The Economics of Resale Price Maintenance (1954).

Ward S. Bowman, Jr., Resale Price Maintenance—A Monopoly Problem, 25 J. Bus. 141 (1952).

European law

± Frederik Van Doorn, Resale Price Maintenance in EC Competition Law: The Need for a Standardised Approach (Nov. 6, 2009)

Case Studies


Costco/J&J contact lens

Complaint, Costco Wholesale Corp. v. Johnson & Johnson Vision Care, Inc.,, Civ. A. No. 3:15-cv-00941 (N.D. Calif. filed Mar. 2, 2015)

 

Bel Canto Design, Ltd. v. MSS HiFi, Inc.,

 

In re Nine West Group Inc.,

 

New York v. Tempur-Pedic Int’l, Inc., 916 N.Y.S.2d 900 (N.Y. Sup. Ct. 2011). (dismissal for failure to prove agreement), aff’d, 944 N.Y.S.2d 518, 519 (2012)

 

Jacobs v. Tempur-Pedic Int’l, Inc., 626 F.3d 1327 (11th Cir. 2010) (affirming dismissal for failure to allege a valid product market)

 

Valuepest.com of Charlotte, Inc. v. Bayer Corp., 561 F.3d 282 (4th Cir.2009)

 

 

Record companies' "Minimum Advertised Price" (MAP) policies
(FTC 2000)

In re Universal Music & Video Distrib. Corp., No. C-3974 (F.T.C. Aug. 30, 2000) (FTC news release—issued May 10, 2000)

NB: similar consent orders were entered with respect to ± Sony Music Entertainment, Inc., ± Time Warner Inc., ± BMG Music, d/b/a BMG Entertainment, and ± Capitol Records, Inc., d/b/a EMI Music Distrib.

Decision and Order (Aug. 30, 2000) (final)

Statement of Chairman Robert Pitofsky and Commissioners Sheila F. Anthony, Mozelle W. Thompson, Orson Swindle, and Thomas B. Leary - Concerning the Market for Prerecorded Music in the United States (May 10, 2000)

Analysis to Aid Public Comment on the Proposed Consent Order (May 10, 2000)

 

22. Tying

24. Price discrimination