Applied Antitrust Law

Dale Collins
NYU School of Law
Georgetown University Law Center

NB: "±" indicates that the hyperlink will take you to another site.


Home page
Topical index
Case studies index



Basic Antitrust Reference Materials


Modern Antitrust Enforcement Policy and Practice
Supplementary Reading on the Design of Antitrust Regimes


Antitrust statutes

Sherman Act

Clayton Act

Federal Trade Commission Act

Antitrust Procedures and Penalties Act, Pub. L. 93-528, 88 Stat. 1706 (1974)

Hart-Scott-Rodino Antitrust Improvements Act, Pub. L. 94-435, 90 Stat. 1383 (1976)

Antitrust Improvements Act of 1980, Pub. L. 96-349, 94 Stat. 1154 (1980)


± Federal Rules of Civil Procedure

± Federal Rules of Criminal Procedure

± Federal Rules of Evidence
Also see Federal Evidence Review, ± Federal Rules of Evidence 2013 (containing links to legislative history)

± Federal of Appellate Procedure

± Supreme Court Rules


± PacerPacer Case Locator)

± U.S. Supreme Court web site

± Justices by term
± Timeline of Justices

± U.S. Circuit map

± Oyez web site (for audio recordings of Supreme Court arguments)


± Antitrust Division web site

± U.S. Dep't of Justice, Antitrust Div., DOJ Antitrust Division Manual (5th ed. rev. Mar. 2014)

± U.S. Dep't of Justice, Antitrust Div., Grand Jury Manual

± DOJ case list

± Appropriation Figures for the Antitrust Division, Fiscal Years 1903-2014 (rev. Oct. 2015)


± FTC web site

± FTC Bureau of Competition web site

± FTC Bureau of Economics web site

± FTC Operating Manual

± FTC case list

± FTC Decisions Case Index (Volumes 46-151, July 1949 Through June 2011)

± FTC Decisions (by volume for Volumes 46-151)

± FTC Annual Report Archive


Congressional Record

Find by page number
Search the Congressional Record

State attorneys general

± National Association of Attorneys General (NAAG) antitrust web site

± NAAG State Antitrust Litigation Database
± Multistate Task Force
± Guidelines and Protocols
± Antitrust Press Releases


± Consolidated Version of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union

± DG COMP, Antitrust Manual of Procedures (Mar. 2012)
Internal DG Competition working documents on procedures for the application of Articles 101 and 102 TFEU

± DG COMP web site

The ± Competition Policy Newsletter contains articles written by staff of the Competition Directorate-General about policy issues and cases. It is published three times a year.

Other international sites


± International Competition Network

International cooperation

U.S. Dep't of Justice & Fed. Trade Comm'n, Antitrust Guidelines for International Enforcement and Cooperation (Jan. 13, 2017) (DOJ press release)

± Public comments and related materials

Prior version: ± U.S. Dep't of Justice & Fed. Trade Comm'n, Antitrust Guidelines for International Enforcement and Cooperation (Apr. 1995)

Antitrust references

ABA Section of Antitrust Law, Antitrust Law Developments (Seventh) (2012).

ABA Section of Antitrust Law, Issues in Competition Law and Policy (2008).

Phillip E. Areeda & Herbert Hovenkamp, Antitrust Law: An Analysis of Antitrust Principles and their Application (1996 and supplements).

Ernest Gellhorn, William E. Kovacic & Stephen Calkins, Antitrust in a Nutshell (5th ed. 2004).

Herbert Hovenkamp, Federal Antitrust Policy: The Law of Competition and its Practice (3d ed. 2005).

Herbert Hovenkamp, The Antitrust Enterprise: Principle and Execution (2006).

Keith N. Hylton, Antitrust Law: Economic Theory and Common Law Evolution (2003).

Richard Posner, Antitrust Law (2d ed. 2001).

± Daniel L. Rubinfeld, Antitrust Policy, in 1 International Encyclopedia of the Social and Behavioral Sciences 553 (2001).

± Louis Kaplow & Carl Shapiro, Antitrust, in 2 Handbook of Law and Economics 1073 (A. Mitchell Polinsky & Steven Shavell eds., 2007).

Robert H. Bork, The Antitrust Paradox: A Policy at War with Itself (1978).

George L. Priest, The Abiding Influence of The Antitrust Paradox: An Essay in Honor of Robert H. Bork, 31 Harv. J. L. & Pub. Pol'y 455 (2008).

Recent antitrust developments

± United States, Annual Report on Competition Policy Developments in the United States of America, Report to the OECD Directorate for Financial and Enterprise Affairs Competition Committee, DAF/COMP/AR(2013)10 (June 17, 2013).


± R. Preston McAfee & Tracy R. Lewis, Introduction to Economic Analysis (continuously updated). Chapters may be read online without cost.

Hal R. Varian, Microeconomic Analysis (3d ed. 1992).

Geoffrey A. Jehle & Philip J. Reny, Advanced Microeconomic Theory (2000).

David M. Kreps, A Course in Microeconomic Theory (1990).

Andreu Mas-Colell, Michael D. Whinston & Jerry R. Green, Microeconomic Theory (1995) (more of a reference text).

± E. Glen Weyl, A Short Summary of Price Theory (May 2014).

Industrial organization economics

Stephen Martin, Industrial Organization in Context (2010)

Dennis W. Carlton & Jeffrey M. Perloff, Modern Industrial Organization (4th ed. 2005).

Jean Tirole, The Theory of Industrial Organization (1988).

I Handbook of Industrial Organization (Richard Schmalensee & Robert Willig eds., 1989).

II Handbook of Industrial Organization (Richard Schmalensee & Robert Willig eds., 1989).

III Handbook of Industrial Organization (Mark Armstrong & Robert H. Porter eds., 2007).

Alvin K. Klevorick, Directions and Trends in Industrial Organization: A Review Essay on the Handbook of Industrial Organization, Brookings Papers on Economic Activity, Microeconomics 241 (1991).

Michael Waterson, Economic Theory of the Industry (1984).

Peter Davis & Eliana Garcés, Quantitative Techniques for Competition and Antitrust Analysis (2010).

Liran Einav & Jonathan Levin, Empirical Industrial Organization: A Progress Report, 24 J. Econ. Perspectives 145 (2010).

Game theory

± Jean Drèze, The Real Insights of Game Theory, Econ. & Pol. Weekly, Apr. 2, 2016, at 55.

± Nicola Giocoli, Three Alternative (?) Stories on the Late 20th-Century Rise of Game Theory (June 1, 2008).

Dynamic economic analysis

± Ulrich Doraszelski & Ariel Pakes, A Framework for Applied Dynamic Analysis in IO, in 3 Handbook of Industrial Organization (Mark Armstrong and Robert H. Porter eds. 2007).

Antitrust economics

Michael D. Whinston, Lectures on Antitrust Economics (2008).

Massimo Motta, Competition Policy: Theory and Practice (2004).

ABA Section of Antitrust Law, Issues in Competition Law and Policy (2008).

Handbook of Antitrust Economics (Paolo Buccirossi ed., 2008).

± Patrice Bougette, Marc Deschamps & Frédéric Marty, When Economics Met Antitrust: The Second Chicago School and the Economization of Antitrust Law (2014)

± Douglas H. Ginsburg & Eric M. Fraser, The Role of Economic Analysis in Competition Law (May 16, 2010), final version at Intellectual Property, Competition Law and Economics in Asia 35 (Ian McEwin, ed. 2011).

± J. Thomas Rosch, Comm'r, Fed. Trade Comm'n, The Next Challenges for Antitrust Economists, Remarks Before the 2010 NERA Antitrust & Trade Regulation Seminar, Santa Fe, New Mexico (July 8, 2010).

J. Thomas Rosch, Comm'r, Fed. Trade Comm'n, Antitrust Law Enforcement: What To Do About The Current Economics Cacophony?, Remarks Before the Bates White Antitrust Conference Washington, D.C. (June 1, 2009).

± Oliver Budzinski, Modern Industrial Economics and Competition Policy: Open Problems and Possible Limits (June 16, 2009).

± Daniel L. Rubinfeld, On the Foundations of Antitrust Law and Economics, in How the Chicago School Overshot The Mark: The Effect of Conservative Economic Analysis on U.S. Antitrust 51 (Robert Pitofsky ed. 2008).

± Lawrence J. White, The Growing Influence of Economics and Economists on Antitrust: An Extended Discussion (NYU Ctr. for Law & Econ. Working Paper No. 08-07, Feb. 2008).

± P. Van Cayseele, Using Economics in Antitrust Decisions: Five Lessons from the European Scene (2005).

Richard A. Posner, The Chicago School of Antitrust Analysis, 127 U. Penn. L. Rev. 925 (1979).

Empirical methods in antitrust

± Daniel L. Rubinfeld, Econometric Issues in Antitrust Analysis, 166 J. Institutional & Theoretical Econ. 62 (2010).

± Daniel L. Rubinfeld, Quantitative Methods in Antitrust, in 1 Issues In Competition Law and Policy 723 (ABA Section of Antitrust Law 2008).

± Daniel Ackerberg, C. Lanier Benkard, Steven Berry & Ariel Pakes, Econometric Tools for Analyzing Market Outcomes (June 14, 2006).

± Jonathan B. Baker & Daniel L. Rubinfeld, Empirical Methods in Antitrust Litigation: Review and Critique, 1 Am. L. & Econ. Rev. 386 (1999).

± Daniel L. Rubinfeld & Peter O. Steiner, Quantitative Methods in Antitrust Litigation, 46 Law & Contemp. Probs. 69 (1983).

± Michael O. Finkelstein & Hans Levenbacht, Regression Estimates of Damages in Price-Fixing Cases, 46 Law & Contemp. Probs. 145 (1983).

± Angus Deaton & John Muellbauer, An Almost Ideal Demand System, 70 Am. Econ. Rev. 312 (1980).

Behavioral economics and antitrust

± Avishalom Tor, Understanding Behavioral Antitrust, 92 Tex. L. Rev. 573 (2014).

± Luca Arnaudo, The Quest for Behavioural Antitrust: Beyond the Label Battle, Towards a Cognitive Approach (Temi e Problemi no. 15 - Italian Competition Authority Working Papers Series, Nov. 2013).

± Alan J. Devlin & Michael S. Jacobs, The Empty Promise of Behavioral Antitrust, 37 Harv. J. L. & Pub. Pol'y 1009 (2013)

± Joshua D. Wright & Judd E. Stone, Misbehavioral Economics: The Case Against Behavioral Antitrust, 33 Cardozo L. Rev. 1517 (2012).

Maurice E. Stucke, The Implications of Behavioral Antitrust (July 16, 2012).

± Gregory J.Werden, Luke M. Froeb & Mikhael Shor, Behavioral Antitrust and Merger Control, 167 J. Institutional & Theoretical Econ. 126 (2011).

± Amanda P. Reeves & Maurice E. Stucke, Behavioral Antitrust, 86 Indiana L.J. 1527 (2010).

± J. Thomas Rosch, Comm'r, Fed. Trade Comm'n, Behavioral Economics: Observations Regarding Issues that Lie Ahead, Outline of Remarks Before the Vienna Competition Conference, Vienna, Austria (June 9, 2010).

± Christopher R. Leslie, Rationality Analysis In Antitrust, 158 U. Pa. L. Rev. 261 (2010).

± Mark Armstrong & Stephen Huck, Behavioral Economics as Applied to Firms: A Primer (Jan. 2010).

± Amanda P. Reeves, Behavioral Antitrust: Unanswered Questions on the Horizon, Antitrust Source, June 2010.

± Elizabeth Bailey, Behavioral Economics: Implications for Antitrust Practitioners, Antitrust Source, June 2010.

± Maurice E. Stucke, Behavioral Economists at the Gate: Antitrust in the 21st Century, 38 Loy. U. Chi. L.J. 513 (2007).

± Glenn Ellison, Bounded Rationality in Industrial Organization (Jan. 2006), final version at 2 Advances In Economics and Econometrics: Theory and Applications 142 (Richard Blundell, Whitney Newey & Torsten Persson eds., 2006).

Welfare economics

± John Creedy, The Welfare Gain from a New Good: An Introduction (January 2015).

Role of economics in antitrust investigations

± United States, The Role of Economic Analysis in Judicial Decisions, (OECD Directorate for Financial and Enterprise Affairs Competition Committee, DAF/COMP/LACF/WD(2008)2, Aug. 19, 2008).

± United States, Techniques for Presenting Complex Economic Analysis to Judges (OECD Directorate for Financial and Enterprise Affairs Competition Committee, DAF/COMP/LACF/WD(2008)2, Aug. 19, 2008).

Antitrust enforcement

± Daniel L. Rubinfeld, Evaluating Antitrust Enforcement: Economic Foundations, in Annual Proceedings of the Fordham Competition Law Institute, International Antitrust Law & Policy 457 Barry E. Hawk, ed., 2009).

Case studies

The Antitrust Revolution (John E. Kwoka, Jr. & Lawrence J. White eds., 6th ed. 2014) (for chapters in earlier editions, see ± Antitrust Revolution web site).

Antitrust blogs

± Antitrust Unpacked (Dale Collins)

± Antitrust & Competition Policy Blog (Danny Sokol)

± Truth on the Market

± Global Competition Review

Modern Antitrust Enforcement Policy and Practice


Bill Baer, Ass't Att'y Gen., U.S. Dep't of Justice, Antitrust Div., Reflections on Antitrust Enforcement in the Obama Administration, Prepared Remarks Before the New York State Bar Association (Jan. 30, 2014).

± Jonathan B. Baker & Carl Shapiro, Evaluating Merger Enforcement During the Obama Administration, Antitrust & Competition Pol’y Blog (June 25, 2012).

± Daniel A. Crane, Has the Obama Justice Department Reinvigorated Antitrust Enforcement?, 65 Stan. L. Rev. Online 13 (July 18, 2012).

± Jonathan B. Baker & Carl Shapiro, Response: Evaluating Merger Enforcement During the Obama Administration, 65 Stan. L. Rev. Online 28 (Aug. 21, 2012).

The Design of Antitrust Regimes


± Jonathan M. Jacobson, Another Take on the Relevant Welfare Standard for Antitrust, Source, August 2015.

± Eleanor M. Fox, Against Goals, 81 Fordham L. Rev. 2157 (2013).

± David A. Hyman & William E. Kovacic, Institutional Design, Agency Life Cycle, and the Goals of Competition Law, 81 Fordham L. Rev. 2163 (2013).

± Jonathan B. Baker, Economics and Politics: Perspectives on the Goals and Future of Antitrust, 81 Fordham L. Rev. 2175 (2013).

± Joshua D. Wright & Douglas H. Ginsburg, The Goals of Antitrust: Welfare Trumps Choice, 81 Fordham L. Rev. 2405 (2013).

± John B. Kirkwood, The Essence of Antitrust: Protecting Consumers and Small Suppliers from Anticompetitive Conduct, 81 Fordham L. Rev. 425 (2013).

± Herbert Hovenkamp, Implementing Antitrust’s Welfare Goals, 81 Fordham L. Rev. 2471 (2013).

± Roger D. Blair & D. Daniel Sokol, Welfare Standards in U.S. and E.U. Antitrust Enforcement, 81 Fordham L. Rev. 2497 (2013).

± Harry First & Spencer Weber Waller, Antitrust’s Democracy Deficit, 81 Fordham L. Rev. 2543 (2013).

± Joshua D. Wright, The Antitrust/Consumer Protection Paradox: Two Policies At War With Each Other, 121 Yale L.J. 2216 (2012).

± Douglas H. Ginsburg & Joshua D. Wright, Dynamic Analysis and the Limits of Antitrust Institutions, 78 Antitrust L.J. 1 (2012).

William E. Kovacic & David A. Hyman, Competition Agency Design: What’s on the Menu?, (2012), final version at 8 European Comp. J. 527 (2012).

Maurice E. Stucke, Reconsidering Antitrust’s Goals, 53 B.C. L. Rev. 551 (2012).

Daniel A. Crane, The Institutional Structure of Antitrust Enforcement (2011).

± Louis Kaplow, On the Choice of Welfare Standards in Competition Law (Harvard Law and Economics Discussion Paper No. 693, May 1, 2011).

± Joshua D. Wright, Abandoning Antitrust’s Chicago Obsession: The Case For Evidence-Based Antitrust, 78 Antitrust L.J. 301 (2011).

± J. Thomas Rosch, Comm'r, Fed. Trade Comm'n, Rewriting History: Antitrust Not As We Know It . . . Yet, Remarks Before the ABA Antitrust Section 2010 Spring Meeting, Washington, D.C. (Apr. 23, 2010).

± Daniel A. Crane, Chicago, Post-Chicago, and Neo-Chicago, 76 U. Chi. L. Rev. 1911 (2009).

± Yannis Katsoulacos & David Ulph, Optimal Enforcement Structures for Competition Policy (Jan. 2009).

± Richard B. McKenzie, In Defense of Monopoly, Regulation, Winter 2009-2010, at 16.

± J. Thomas Rosch, Comm'r, Fed. Trade Comm'n, Antitrust Law Enforcement: What To Do About The Current Economics Cacophony?, Remarks Before the Bates White Antitrust Conference Washington, D.C. (June 1, 2009)

Gregory J. Werden, Essays on Consumer Welfare and Competition Policy (Mar. 2, 2009).

± How the Chicago School Overshot the Mark: The Effect of Conservative Economic Analysis on U.S. Antitrust (Robert Pitofsky ed., 2008)

± Joshua D. Wright, Overshot The Mark? A Simple Explanation of the Chicago School’s Influence on Antitrust (Geo. Mason U. L. & Econ. Research Paper Series No. 09-23, Mar. 31, 2009)

± Maurice E. Stucke, New Antitrust Realism (University of Tennessee Legal Studies Research Paper No. 1323815, ____), final version at Global Competition Policy (Jan. 6, 2009)

± David S. Evans, Economics and the Design of Competition Law, in 1 Issues In Competition Law and Policy 99 (ABA Section of Antitrust Law 2008).

± Antitrust Modernization Comm’n, Report and Recommendations (2007).

The full ± Commission web site contains a wealth of reports and transcripts on the state of modern antitrust law.

± William E. Kovacic, The Intellectual DNA of Modern U.S. Competition Law for Dominant Firm Conduct: The Chicago/Harvard Double Helix, 2007 Colum. Bus. L. Rev. 1 (2007).

Robert H. Lande & Neil Averitt, Using the “Consumer Choice” Approach to Antitrust Law, 74 Antitrust L.J. 175 (2007).

± Dennis W. Carlton, Does Antitrust Need to be Modernized? (Economic Analysis Group Discussion Paper EAG 07-3 Jan. 2007), final version at 21 J. Econ. Perspectives 155 (2007).

± Edwin Rockefeller, The Antitrust Religion (Cato Institute 2007).

± Ken Heyer, Welfare Standards and Merger Analysis: Why not the Best? (EAG 06-8, Mar. 2006).

± William E. Kovacic, The Modern Evolution of U.S. Competition Policy Enforcement Norms, 71 Antitrust L.J. 377 (2003).

± Timothy J. Muris, Improving the Economic Foundations of Competition Policy, Remarks Before the George Mason University Law Review's Winter Antitrust Symposium (Jan. 15, 2003).

Robert W. Crandall & Clifford Winston, Does Antitrust Policy Improve Consumer Welfare? Assessing the Evidence (AEI-Brookings Joint Center for Regulatory Studies, Related Publication 04-07, Apr. 2004), final version at 17 J. Econ. Perspectives 3 (2003).

± Gregory J. Werden, The Effect of Antitrust Policy on Consumer Welfare: What Crandall and Winston Overlook (U.S. Dep't of Justice Antitrust Division Discussion Paper No. EAG 03-2, Jan. 2003).

± Robert H. Lande, Consumer Choice as the Ultimate Goal of Antitrust, 62 U. Pitt. L. Rev. 503, (2001).

± William E. Kovacic & Carl Shapiro, Antitrust Policy: A Century of Economic and Legal Thinking 14 J. Econ. Perspectives 43 (2000).

± Neil W. Averitt & Robert H. Lande, Consumer Choice: The Practical Reason for Both Antitrust and Consumer Protection Law, 10 Loy. Consumer L. Rev. 44 (1998).

William E. Kovacic, The Quality of Appointments and the Capability of the Federal Trade Commission, 49 Admin. L. Rev. 915 (1997).

Russell Pittman, Consumer Surplus as the Appropriate Standard for Antitrust Enforcement, Competition Pol'y Int'l, Vol. 3, No. 2, Autumn 2007.

John J. Flynn, Antitrust Policy and the Concept of a Competitive Process, 35 N.Y.L. Sch. L. Rev. 893, 897 (1990).

± Donald F. Turner, The Durability, Relevance, and Future of American Antitrust Policy, 75 Calif. L. Rev. 797, 798 (1987).

± Herbert J. Hovenkamp, Chicago and Its Alternatives, 1986 Duke L.J. 1014.

± Herbert J. Hovenkamp, Antitrust Policy After Chicago, 84 Mich. L. Rev. 213 (1985).

Frank H. Easterbrook, The Limits to Antitrust, 63 Tex. L. Rev. 1 (1984).

William F. Baxter, Separation of Powers, Prosecutorial Discretion, and the "Common Law" Nature of Antitrust Law, 60 Tex. L. Rev. 661 (1982).

± Robert H. Lande, Wealth Transfers as the Original and Primary Concern of Antitrust: The Efficiency Interpretation Challenged, 32 Hastings L. J. 67 (1982).

Eleanor M. Fox, The Modernization of Antitrust: A New Equilibrium, 66 Cornell L. Rev. 1140 (1981).

± Robert Pitofsky. The Political Content of Antitrust, 127 U. Pa. L. Rev. 1051 (1979).

± Louis B. Schwartz, Justice and Other Non-Economic Goals of Antitrust, 127 U. Pa. L. Rev. 1076 (1979).

± Kenneth G. Elzinga, The Goals of Antitrust—Other than Competition and Efficiency, What Else Counts?, 125 U. Penn. L. Rev. 1191 (1977).

Richard Hofstadter, What Happened to the Antitrust Movement?, in The Paranoid Style In American Politics And Other Essays 188 (1965).

Robert Bork, Ward Bowman, Harlan Blake & Kenneth Jones, The Goals of Antitrust: A Dialogue on Policy, 65 Colum. L. Rev. 363 (1965);

Economics of antitrust enforcement

± Volker Nocke & Michael D. Whinston, Merger Policy with Merger Choice (Sept. 2010).